Tuesday, March 24, 2020

Gender Inequality in America

Introduction This paper is aimed at presenting the timeline that can throw light on the history of gender discrimination in America. In particular, it is important to focus on such issues as occupational segregation, gender pay gap, education, and political representation because they determine the status of a person in the society. To a great extent, these examples can demonstrate how this problem evolved with time passing.Advertising We will write a custom report sample on Gender Inequality in America specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Timeline 1619 The proposal to provide men and women with equal portions of land is not supported the Virginia House of Burgesses (Miller, 1966). They were allowed to have only 50 acres of land (Miller, 1966, p. 201). This event is not closely discussed by historians; however, it could have profound implications for the status of males and females in the United States. The main problem is that this d ecision contributed to the economic inequalities between men and women, and the legacies were noticeable for a long time. Overall, the restriction prevented many women from acquiring the positions of great authority in the new settlements. 1692 This year is marked by the beginning of the Salem witch trials. They resulted in the execution of many people who were mostly women. This event highlighted the extent to which women were vulnerable to the prejudices of the society. Admittedly, this catastrophe cannot be explained only by gender discrimination because it also takes origins in the religious beliefs of people who instigated these trials. However, one should keep in mind that the accusations of witchcraft could stem from the deep prejudice against women, especially those ones who were not married. Therefore, this event can also be viewed as a form of gender discrimination. 1769 The colonies adopt laws according to which women are not allowed to possess their own property. This pr ivilege was given only to their husbands. These laws should not be disregarded because they virtually deprived women of their self-sufficiency. The policy of the government contributed to the formation of a patriarchal society in which women could not express their views on any significant issue such as political life of the society or its economic development. Therefore, the importance of this event cannot be underestimated.Advertising Looking for report on gender studies? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More 1772 Salem College is established. It should be noted that it was the first college established for females. It should be noted that for a long time, this college was the only educational institution that served the needs of women. One should keep in mind that the first co-educational college was founded only in 1833. This lack of attention to the education of women deprived them of many employment opportunities. 1787 The del egates present at the Constitutional Convention decide that voting qualifications should be determined by the legislators of separate states (Vile, 2005). As a result, women are denied the right to vote in every part of the United States, except New Jersey. This particular event is important because it lead to the exclusion of women from the political life of the society. Moreover, they did not have any direct channels for influencing the development of the society. 1807 Females are deprived of the right to vote in New Jersey. It should be mentioned that at that time, New Jersey was the only state in which females were allowed to take part in the political life of the society. This event demonstrated that the state legislators wanted to exclude females from the political life. This problem was addressed only at the beginning of the twentieth century. 1848 Seneca Falls Convention is organized. During this convention, various female activists discussed the issues related to the proble ms encountered by women. In particular, they focused on such issues as employment, education, and political representation. This event attracted the attention of many journalists who discussed the arguments put forward by female activists. This convention was one of the landmarks in the development of the civil rights movement. 1848 The famous Myra Clark case begins. This case was vital for the status of women because it was related to their legal rights to inherit and own property. One should bear in mind that at that time, only several states enabled women to enjoy property rights.Advertising We will write a custom report sample on Gender Inequality in America specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Therefore, the verdict of the court could have profound implications for the economic status of American women. At that time, they were struggling for the right to act as independent economic agents. 1867 American legislators give the righ t to vote black men. Nevertheless, women are denied the same right. To a great extent, this controversial decision stimulated women’s right movement because at that time, many females understood that American legislators had been unwilling to promote their political empowerment. This is one of the details that be singled out. 1872 The Congress passes legislation according to which the employees of the federal government should be given equal pay regardless of their sex. The main problem is that this right was not given to the female employees of private companies. As a result, many females could not protect their interests in the court. The problem was resolved only in the second half of the twentieth century when legislators began to eliminate wage discrimination. 1872 Susan Anthony is arrested for trying to vote. This event was important because it indicated that the state could take punitive action against women who were willing to take part in the political life of the co untry. This decision increased the tensions in the American society. At that time, the struggle for the right to vote was critical for many American women. 1873 It is important to speak about the case which is known as Bradwell v. Illinois. According to the decision of the Supreme Court, state legislators had a right to deny women the right to work as lawyers. This event should not be overlooked because it prevented many women from entering legal profession. As a result, their views on many social problems were often overlooked by the state. To a great extent, this Supreme Court decision can be viewed as an example of occupational segregation. One should keep in mind that the ability to practice legal profession was critical for the promotion of women’s rights.Advertising Looking for report on gender studies? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More 1896 The National Association of Colored Women is established. It should be kept in mind that this organization was important for protecting people who could be discriminated on the basis of their gender as well as race. The association was vital for supporting many underprivileged women who faced different forms of discrimination. 1897 The New York State Association Opposed to Woman Suffrage is founded. This organization attempted to show female suffrage could not benefit the society. The formation of the organization intensified the tensions in the American society. The members of this organization were extremely critical of the increased political representation of women. 1920 This year was marked by the adoption of the Nineteenth Amendment according to which the state legislators could not deny citizens the right to vote on the basis of their sex. The change in the U.S. legislation enabled women to influence the internal and external policies of the country. Yet, it is critical to remember that the political participation of women was not welcomed by many governmental officials. 1945 The administrators of Harvard Medical School agree to admit women. Later these restrictions on the admission of women were removed in other educational establishments. This example is important because it shows that for a long time, women were barred from the most prestigious universities such as Harvard. Therefore, one can say that they were deprived of opportunities for achieving higher social status. It is also important to mentions that these barriers were not required by the state. In many cases, this sexism was imbedded in the policies of separate educational institutions. 1946 It is important to speak about the case which is known as U.S. v. Ballard. This court decision limited the ability of women to act as jurors. In many cases, the lawyers were allowed to exclude female candidates who wanted to become jurors. Therefore, very often women could not express their views on various criminal cases. This is one of the issues that should be considered. 1963 The U.S. Congress adopts Equal Pay Act which explicitly prohibits discrimination against women in the workplace. In particular, this law is related to the compensation provided to male and female workers. The adoption of this law significantly raised the income of women in the United States. One should keep in mind that this law was supposed to eliminate different forms of discrimination that could be based on race, ethnic origin, religion or race. This legal act enabled women to protect their interests in the court and companies that were biased against female workers could be required to pay fines. 1973 Military academies in the United States are required to admit women. It should be noted that before this event, the United States Army excluded women, even though in many cases, this institution relied on their labor. In turn, the decision created more opportunities for women who wanted to join mil itary organizations. However, this example also indicates that even after World War II, the American government was unwilling to promote the empowerment of women. 1978 The discrimination against pregnant women is prohibited by the state. It should be noted for a long time, employers could easily fire women who got pregnant. Very often, pregnancy could be one of those factors that slowed down the career growth of many female employees. Moreover, female employees could not protect the position in the court. 2007 It is important to mention the Supreme Court case known as Ledbetter v. Goodyear Tire. According to this decision, a worker can sue an employer for gender pay discrimination only during the period which is limited to 180 days (Leavitt, 2013, p. 163). Therefore, this decision enhanced the legal power of companies. Furthermore, many of the discriminatory practices went unpunished. Thus, it is possible to say that gender discrimination has not been completely discriminated, but i n the course of history, the American society has made considerable achievements in the promotion of equality. Additionally, there are many legal provisions that enable women to protect their interests. Reference List Leavitt, G. (2013). Class Conflict: The Pursuit and History of American Justice. New York, NY: Transaction Publishers. Miller, J. (1966). The First Frontier: Life in Colonial America. New York, NY: University Press of America. Vile, J. (2005). The Constitutional Convention of 1787: A Comprehensive. New York, NY: ABC-CLIO. This report on Gender Inequality in America was written and submitted by user Raphael Watts to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.

Friday, March 6, 2020

Convert Between Degrees Fahrenheit and Celsius

Convert Between Degrees Fahrenheit and Celsius Converting between Fahrenheit and Celsius temperature scales is useful if you are working temperature conversion problems, work in a lab, or simply want to know how hot or cold it is in a country that uses the other scale! Its easy to make the conversion. One way is to look at a thermometer that has both scales and simply read the value. If youre doing homework or need to do a conversion in a lab, youll want the calculated values. You can use an online temperature converter or else do the math yourself.   Celsius to Fahrenheit Degrees The formula to convert Celsius to Fahrenheit is: F 1.8 C 32 Multiply the Celsius temperature by 1.8.Add 32 to this number.Report the answer in degrees Fahrenheit. Example: Convert 20 °C to Fahrenheit. F 1.8 C 32F 1.8 (20) 321.8 x 20 36 so F 36 3236 32 68 so F 68 °F20 °C 68 °F Fahrenheit to Celsius Degrees Its easy to work the conversion the other way. The formula to convert Fahrenheit to Celsius is: C 5/9 (F-32) Subtract 32 from the degrees Fahrenheit.Multiply the value by 5.Divide this number by 9.Report the answer in degrees Celsius. Example: Convert body temperature in Fahrenheit (98.6 °F) to Celsius. C 5/9 (F-32)C 5/9 (98.6 - 32)98.6 - 32 66.6 so you have C 5/9 (66.6)66.6 x 5 333 so you have C 333 / 9333 / 9 37 °C98.6 °F 37 °C Converting to the Kelvin Scale Other common conversions are between Fahrenheit and Kelvin and between Celsius and Kelvin: Convert Fahrenheit to KelvinConvert Celsius to Kelvin

Wednesday, February 19, 2020

Cynthia Cooper and WorldCom Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Cynthia Cooper and WorldCom - Essay Example This expose elucidates on the appropriate decision that Cynthia should take to deal with this issue. From the onset, it is crucial to point out that the right decision for Cynthia would be reporting these fraudulent acts to her superiors without making the information public. In order to make her case strong, Cynthia should use the findings from the additional investigations she carried out in order to ensure that the exposure has enough merit. However, it is crucial for her to seek another job before taking any action since the decision taken might leave her jobless. Any decision that one might take in such a situation has various implications. One such implication would be on the families affected by the whistle blowing in case of termination of careers and effectively the source of livelihood. Cynthia Hooper is no exceptional and has to consider her career and family and the careers of other employees, something I would do in her shoes. According to Sissela Bok, â€Å"Would-be whistleblowers confront the conflict inherent in all dissent: between conforming and sticking their ne cks out. The more repressive the authority they challenge, the greater the personal risk they take in speaking out† (as cited in Donaldson & Werhane, 2007). In this regard, there is a big risk of one’s livelihood and that of the family and the career of the whistleblower in case the superiors view such acts as dissent. Donaldson and Werhane (2007) further support this idea by stating that, â€Å"When audiences are not free to receive or to act on the information-when censorship or fear of retribution stifles response-then the message rebounds to injure the whistleblower.† The most important reason for reporting the extra findings indicate that Cynthia is showing responsibility by indicating the extra steps taken towards unearthing the truth. When making this decision however, it is crucial for her to remember that she may face accusations

Tuesday, February 4, 2020

Can a machine have a conscience Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Can a machine have a conscience - Research Paper Example pic indicate that conscience is a complicate matter to be understood even in humans and hence cannot be replicated in machines no matter how intelligent they are or will be made to be. With the new technological innovations of this century that continue to shock even the inventors, there is possibility of them developing a machine that will have a conscience in the future. One of the best brain scientists in the world Christof Koch who works for the Allen Institute for Brain Science located in Seattle is very positive of having a breakthrough in the scientific and technological industry which will lead to development of a conscious machine. He believes that it is only a matter of organizing the machine to work like a mammalian brain and the results will be epic (Regalado 2014). The institute he is working in has dedicated millions of dollars in neuroscience research of the mammalian brain studying its neurons and synapses and trying to find out about consciousness through the Human Genome Project. He vouches for the integrated information theory which will be able to explain about consciousness in detail which would in turn lead to development of a machine with the same components, neurons and synapses to enable it have a conscience. According to the authors Tononi and Koch (2008), the concept of consciousness is as imperfect to understand and explain in detail as the law of physics and other sciences but it is there and can be explored further. If there is a theory to explain about consciousness no matter how complicated or vague it currently is, it means that there is hope that further research, development and expansion of the theory will lead to reproduction of machineries with inbuilt conscious and hence will act, think, feel and make decisions similarly to a human being. Detailed clinical study using sophisticated instruments have provided a basic understanding of the process of consciousness (Tononi and Koch 2008). These results are the basics of the

Sunday, January 26, 2020

Critical Regionalism In Free Movement Cultural Studies Essay

Critical Regionalism In Free Movement Cultural Studies Essay In an era where free movement of information, products and services has increased tremendously, the society is increasingly experiencing incidences of homogeneity. More than ever, the global population is assuming a common culture that is characterized by a high level of uniformity. Although this is in most instances considered to be western culture, it is notable that local cultural aspects are also being incorporated in the global culture. Just like other aspects of culture, it can not be disputed that architecture has equally experienced increased homogeneity. Emergent research argues that although internationalization of culture is an indication of societal advancement, it can also have detrimental effects on local culture. In this respect, it is particularly feared that internationalization undermines creativity and innovation as local efforts are integrated in to designs that are then accorded a global orientation. The current trend has culminated in a conflict between internationalization and regional artists who argue that their efforts are increasingly undermined by the former. Increasingly, preservation of local and regional architecture and culture in general is becoming tricky. Preservation and conservation of local culture and architectural designs is requiring complex efforts in order to attain optimal results. It is against this background that this paper provides an explicit review of the concept of critical regionalism form Kenneth Framptons point of view. In order to enhance a harmonic consideration, the essay is classified in different phases that exhaustively review particularistic aspects of this conception, the contribution of Jorn Utzon to the subject under review, practical examples with respect to how culture has been unified in the modern cities, the response of critical universalism to future technology and several other concerns that are related in different ways to the co ncept of critical regionalism. According to Butler and Spivak (2007), critical regionalism refers to the concentrated efforts or attempts that seek to synthesize or mainstream the rooted aspects of a given region such as physical attributes and cultural characteristics with the relevant technology being employed in development at that given time. The main aim of the efforts is to counter the inherent lack of identity and placelessness by putting in consideration the unique aspects that are found within the context or environment of the given building. Besides being mindful of the local environmental aspects, the ultimate architecture also incorporates the universal aspects that characterize the contemporary mobile society. In the long run, the final architecture can be considered to be sustainable and unique in different ways. This is fundamental in preserving the local culture, encouraging creativity and innovation and at he same time enhancing societal advancement. The notion of sustainability is integral to thi s conception as the final piece of architecture needs to be both functional and aesthetic n nature. Critical regionalism is a concept that has been accorded increased attention since historical times. The term was initially coined by Liane Lefaivre and Alexander Tzonis. It was later analyzed and accorded new meanings by Kenneth Frampton in the preceding years. In his Towards a Critical Regionalism, Frampton provides an explicit analysis and review of different methodologies that can be employed in embracing modernity without compromising the role of the local knowledge. He also cites a host of modern construction practices that compromise the ability of the developers to incorporate important cultural aspects in constructions. His main argument revolves around the contention that as much as assuming modern values and attributes is imperative for enhancing competitiveness within the global sphere, equal attention also needs to be accorded to diverse features that are found in the environment that the building would be located. Several authors of whom Powell (2007) is represented contend that internationalization has increasingly contributed to the erosion of critical traditional values, culture and attributes. Almost all aspects of the global population are undergoing a significant transition and more emphasis is being placed on homogenous cultures. In his review, Ricoeur (1965) contends that the current trend towards modernization can be implicated for disregarding the role of old civilizations in development. He argues that critical regionalization provides a credible alternative that can be employed in resolving the emergent challenges. The fact that the concept recognizes the importance of continuous evolution makes it instrumental in sustainable decision making as past lessons are used in determining the nature of future decisions and moves. The activities that are proposed by this conception tend to be flexible and can be employed in redefining the current decisions in order to adopt timely intervent ions that would reverse the current destructive trend. In his critical review of culture and civilization, Frampton (1983) indicates that the current state of architecture and building is essentially conditioned by the building industry. This has led to the development of building restrictions and regulations that determine not only the design but also the citing of the buildings that are set up in different areas. The fact that the respective building codes and regulations are standardized and replicated in different areas undermines the ability of mainstreaming vital cultural concerns during construction of buildings. Contravention of the set restrictions and regulations often exposes the given developer to stringent measures that impact negatively on their welfare. This has led to the increase in high rise buildings that in most instances assume a similar design. At this point, it can be argued that this has played a leading role in suppressing cultural expression as well as creativity and innovation. In his research, Jameson (1983) c ites that the current developments in this regard are laying undue emphasis on the concept of utility as opposed to different aspects whose interplay culminates in a sustainable construction practices. The concept of critical regionalization according to Powell (2007) seeks to counter this trend by ensuring that as much as certain building codes are strictly adhered to, room is also provided for creativity, innovation and incorporation of critical cultural aspects. In essence, modernization is placed within the traditional concept and vice versa. In current times, arts are increasingly employed in enhancing creativity and innovation. Artists use this medium to express their diverse cultural aspects to the entire world. It is also a viable way through which culture is preserved by the respective society and used for educational purposes in future. The fact that innovation and creativity is slowly but progressively being undermined through the gravitation of arts is also worrying. In this regard, it is argued that entertainment and manufacturing of commodities are providing avenues through which the society is increasingly developing a hybrid global culture. Specific techniques, methodologies and standards of constructing buildings provide limited room for inculcation of vital cultural aspects in the same. This is where critical regionalism comes in handy in a bit to counter the scenario. In this regard, the concept initiates and maintains an acceptable level of resistance that contravenes the set standards and procedures. This according to Frampton (1983) has been critical in putting brakes on the avant-garde pendulum. Respective efforts are geared towards a noble cause of preserving certain ideals that characterize the present day culture. As indicated earlier, Frampton (1983) postulates that the current arrierre-garde holding position is likely to culminate in incidences of resistance and a persistent identity giving culture that is characterized by universal techniques. Seemingly, it is defined by the enlightenment progress myth that does not advocate for a return to vernacular forms. Critical regionalism at this point is defined as a bridge whose central position demands that the future architecture must pass over it in order to attain optimal results. Essentially, it is argued that position of critical regionalism demands that both universal civilization and world culture accord it utmost attention. This recognition is characterized by deconstruction of alien forms that have been forcefully or intentionally acquired by the global society and limitation of the economy that entirely depend son technological production. A classic example of such a situation has been cited by Frampton to constitute Jorn Utzons Bagsvaerd Church that was built in 1976 and is located in Copenhagen. This is an exemplary illustration of the concepts of world culture and universal civilization. The construction of the exterior part was basically based on the universal technique. This is built using concrete blocks and concrete wall panels that are pre-cast. These are set up in a repetitive manner that creates an impression of a grid. Notably, this building code is found across the globe and it constitutes one of the important regulations that are set forth by the industry. Thus it can be considered a universal attribute that is in line with the global expectations with regards to building and construction. Interior Design of Jorn Utzons Bagsvaerd Church However, the interior part can be considered to express the world culture or secular culture that is typical to Copenhagen. One dominant feature of the interior pertains to the concrete vault that is not economic in nature and is not common on a universal scale. The inherent manipulation of light is only typical to sacred places found in the region. As mentioned afore, this is not an implication of western culture; rather it can only be likened to Chinese pagoda roof that is a representation of world culture. Also worth acknowledging with regard to the concept of critical regionalism is the mainstreaming of the regional peculiarities in the construction process. In this respect, Lovine (2004) asserts that buildings need to put in consideration the environmental features and attributes of the locales within which they are situated. Generally, modernization puts lays particular emphasis on economizing the available space and in most instances, it is forced to get rid of certain aspects such as topography. The elimination of such aspects is a clear indication that certain techniques are employed during construction. Notably, other important aspects such as climate have also been controlled by human techniques during construction. In his research, Norberg-Schulz (1980) asserts that these aspects are important as they represent certain cultural aspects of the developer. Critical regionalism counters this by assuming the principle of building the site that incorporates diverse environmental asp ects that are also a reflection of the cultural aspects of the given population. A classical illustration of the importance of preferring tectonic over scenographic features is exemplified by the Aaltos SSynatsalo Town hall that was constructed in 1952. In this, a tactile surface is successfully employed in enhancing the legibility of the architecture. The brick steps that line the exterior and lead to the chambers of the council create a harmonic impression that arguably affirms the feet as it meets each tread. The inside of the chambers are then made up of wood that presents a different feeling and reading altogether. Generally, Slessor (2004) contends that designers that put in consideration regional criticism need to incorporate aspects of a physical as well as localized sense of place. Respective elements that can be effectively employed in attaining this included orientation, topography, lighting characteristics, micro climatic conditions and vegetation. Further, probabilities for natural ventilation, natural lighting and shading for cooling purposes are equally important. The benefits that accrue from this are not only economic in nature but they also place the building within the physical environmental surroundings and enhance the general harmony of the two. The inherent sense of interaction with the natural surroundings is an indication of environmental sensitivity that is critical in the twenty first century. Of great importance would be the employment of local materials for construction that not only cuts down economic costs but also enhances the performance of the given building. Also worth mentioning with regard to critical regionalism is the ability of the designer to clearly interpret the passage of time using the building. According to Foucault (1986), a building that provides clear ways of recording and understanding the passage of time is a clear expression of the period that it was constructed. This is important as it enables the society to understand it in light of historical revolution. The respective recording methods can also offer a basement upon which future construction can be devised as well as understood. In particular, attitudes regarding durability, permanence, change and decay that are related to recording are a vital expression of the sensibility of the region. Further, Butler and Spivak (2007) indicate that emphasis on the importance of human interaction during construction is also an important aspect of regional criticism. In this regard, the given design needs to consider the organization as well as structure of the family that would reside therein. In certain communities, concerns expand beyond the domestic sphere and incorporate the dimensions of the community within which the family is situated as well as the economic and political structures that characterize the region. Issues pertaining to power, the ability of the design to either express invitation or exclusion is also accorded utmost attention during this time. Other concepts include democracy, hierarchy and bureaucracy. These need to be clearly defined as they are critical in the understanding of the places and spaces that buildings present. Also equally important to critical regionalism is a clear understanding of human dignity and organization within the building. Emergent aspects such as leisure time need to be put in consideration during the construction process. In this regard, Jameson (1983) indicates that the twenty first century tendencies lay particular importance on the separation of spaces employed in production and consumption. These differences have been identified to have diverse impacts on the holistic functioning of the society. Relative concerns also involve the responsibility of individuals within vast business environments, the compartmentalization and separation of activities in the course of the process of production and the role of machines in the production process are important architectural concerns that need to be interpreted effectively. Arguably, all the above concepts interlink and interrelate with each other to culminate to culminate in a suitable environment that is supportive of the activities of the post industrial society. Questions revolving around mass production and participation of individuals in the entire process need to be addressed accordingly. Human dignity needs to be upheld to attain optimal production that is fundamental for successful operation. At this juncture, it can be ascertained that critical regionalism is an all inclusive concept that generally seeks to enhance sustainable development with respect to architecture and construction. In his research, Davey (2001) ascertains that the concept of regulation of building codes across the globe has led to unification of designs. Most cities adapt their design from the grid structure. The buildings contained therein tend to be of a similar design that is influenced by the set and standardized regulations. For instance, commercial buildings that are mostly found within the central business districts of cities such as New York and London tend to be of a similar design. This differs from those employed for constructing buildings in residential areas. Again, these tend to adopt a distinct design hat is stipulated by the technical expertise in the industry. The fact that developing economies are also increasingly adopting this trend has various implications on future construction and architecture in general. According to Slessor (2000), the replication of these designs in developing countries can be attributed to the concept of westernization that is perceived to be more ideal than the cultural aspect. This is likely to have detrimental effects on the cultural welfare of the societies in general. In particular, this would probably be unified and would compromise the concept of diversity n the long run. Also worth mentioning are the current trends that tend to consider local and regional designs to be global in nature. Basically, this is contributed to by changes in perceptions that tend to accord certain cultural designs more importance and preference than others. At this point, it can be contended that future architecture is compounded by various complexities that need to be effectively addressed by relevant institutions, persons and authorities. Certainly, creativity, innovation and cultural diversity are increasingly being compromised by internationalization of building codes. The loss of diversity is likely to have devastating effects on the wellbeing of the society as it would negatively impact on the ability of the given society to cushion itself against destructive environmental effects. Several factors have been put forth by relative studies in a bit to address this glaring shortcoming. Powell (2007) maintains that the concept of sustainability needs to be revisited and made a mainstream factor during construction and architectural design. In this respect, it is suggested that practical measures need to be undertaken to significantly reduce energy consumption of buildings. Statistical evidence shows that the amount of energy consumed by the buildings is equal to those employed in the industrial sector. This can be attained if natural resources found in the given environment are employed in construction of buildings found therein. This implies that the architectural designs that are employed in such areas need to be localized. Capitalization on the topography and other natural features found in the given environment also need to be assumed in order to reduce the resources employed in construction. Powell (2007) indicates that the current trend is leading to unification of architectural designs that undermines diversity. Environmental aesthetics is also being compromised by the internationalization of architectural designs. Techno-scientific-cum-economic agendas have inherent problems that could be difficult to resolve in future. Therefore, viable alternatives that reflect distinctive cultural aspects of a community need to be explored. Conclusion From the preceding analysis, it is certain that critical regionalism is an all inclusive concept that is based on the principle of sustainability. It is made up of various concepts that are imperative for sustainable development. It not only appreciates the importance of modernization in architectural design and building construction but also ensures that relative decisions are informed by important lessons learnt in the past. Traditional cultural aspects are integrated in architectural designs and construction that is driven by critical regionalism. The current trends have raised various concerns with regard to architectural designs and building codes being employed on a global scale. As it has been prescribed by this study, practical intervention measures need to be undertaken in order to counter the current scenario. The concepts of sustainability and inclusion of physical features like topography need to influence the development of modern architectural designs. This will not onl y save resources but will enhance diversity that is critical in cushioning the society against various threats.

Saturday, January 18, 2020

Amazon: Online Shopping and Amazon.com Essay

Write a 1-page, single-space, 10-point font case analysis on the Amazon Case making sure to address the following questions: 1. On a scale of â€Å"1† (Very Poor) to â€Å"5† (Excellent), how would you rate Jeff Bezos as an entrepreneur? How would you rate him as an IT manager? 2. Trace the evolution of the Amazon.com business from the company’s launch in 1995 to the dot-com collapse in 2000. How did the company’s strategy change over time? How did capabilities evolve? What value did the company deliver to all stakeholders? 3. Do you agree with the decision to pursue the Toys â€Å"R† Us deal? Why did the company do the deal? Should Amazon.com do more deals like this? What impact does the Toys â€Å"R† Us deal have on Amazon.com’s business model in early 2000? 4. As a member of the Amazon.com board of directors in early 2001, what challenges did the company face and what actions would you take? Amazon.com is a global leader in online-retail. The company was founded by Jeff Bezos in Seattle in 1995, during the period of tech boom era of the 1990’s. Since founding as an online bookseller, Amazon.com drastically grown to expand its product offerings, fulfillment, and customer service. This growth required huge investments in technology and processes to support the complex business. Today, Amazon .com sells, or auctions, books, music, videos, toys, videogames, consumer electronics, software, and home products. On a scale of â€Å"1† (Very Poor) to â€Å"5† (Excellent), I would rate Jeff Bezos 5 out of 5 as an entrepreneur. â€Å"Our vision is to be the world’s most consumer-centric company, where customers can come to find anything they want to buy online.†-Jeff Bezos. In 1994, Bezos was already a successful investment banker with estimated six figure salary. Bezos definitely had huge potential to rise in the company ranking but Jeff had a vision driven by a secret desire for the business of electronic retailing. And just four years after Bezos created Amazon.com, the virtual bookstore became the model for how e-commerce businesses should be run. Now there are thousands of online retailer following his steps. Amazon begun on its strong root by starting up the business in Seattle during the dot com bubble meant Amazon.com was entering a new industry from its earliest beginnings. And being located in Seattle meant the company had e-commerce’s top talent and leading experts nearby. Other thing Bezos drove Amazon as a very successful entrepreneur is that his decision to become a business that offered multiple product lines meeting various consumer needs. The company also created a barrier to entry by being the first large online bookseller and finally a huge online retailer. I would rate Bezos 5 out of 5 as an IT manager as well. The company experienced extraordinary growth during and after the tech boom with customers increasing from 14 million in 1999 to over 20 million in 2000 . But with rising fulfillment costs, the company had not produced profits during these years. The challenge Bezos and Amazon faced was turning the company profitable before cash ran out and operations would have to cease or go bankrupt. In fact, were it not for the $318 million raised through stock options in 1999 and another $680 million borrowed in early 2000, the company surely would have run out of cash. Strengths: Amazon.com strengths begin in its roots. Starting up in Seattle during the dot com bubble meant Amazon.com was entering a new industry from its earliest beginnings. And being located in Seattle meant the company had e-commerce’s top talent and leading experts nearby. The company’s next strength came from its decision to become a business that offered multiple product lines meeting various consumer needs. The talent and industry that Amazon.com was surrounded by made it easy for the company to switch from a bookseller to retailer by utilizing virtual resources versus traditional physical requirements such as store fronts and floor space. The company also created a barrier to entry by being the first large online bookseller. Since its incorporation in 1994, Amazon’s business model had expanded from offering a simple internet marketplace for books to providing web services to online retailers, storage solutions and a dramatically expanded product line. Nevertheless, despite massive sales the company failed to produce a profit for shareholders and Amazon was on the brink of bankruptcy at the beginning of 2001. If I were a shareholder who received the company’s 2000 annual report, I would have strongly agreed with CEO Jeff Bezos that the company must achieve profitability by year-end 2001. I would recommend that the company accomplish this by cutting costs related to fulfillment and inventory and by increasing revenue by capitalizing on the previous year’s investments in infrastructure. While many expenditures in 2000 were related to Amazon’s efforts to implement its strategy for growth, operating costs had also increased. Amazon’s fulfillment costs were 11 11% of sales in 1997 and 1998, increased to 14 14% in 1999. Because e-Commerce was still new and just beginning to establish customer trust, it’s critical that these costs be reduced without negatively impacting quality, speed of delivery or customer service. Because of Amazon’s large scale and repeatable processes, I would recommend a continuous improvement strategy such as lean Six Sigma. Another area of operational cash drain is inventory. After adding multiple new product lines and distribution centers in 2000, inventory management became a challenge for Amazon. In 1999, inventory turnover was 20% that of competitor Barnes and Noble and contributed to negative cash flow in 2000. Amazon would be well advised to use IT technology such as an advanced ERP to better estimate the inventory needed to meet demand without overstocking. In addition to cutting costs, Amazon must increase revenue From its birth in 1994 to the dot com collapse in 2000, Amazon.com implemented a number of changes to its business strategy in attempt to stay on top of the e-commerce industry. Amazon.com started in 1994 as a simple online book retailer. Under this initial strategy, Amazon was receiving all of its revenue from its book sales (sales revenue model), and was  popular because it was the first online retailer to do so. Amazon created value for customers early on by providing a space for customers to purchase a large variety of books in one place, thereby reducing the customers product search drastically from the traditional method of going to brick & mortar book stores. In the early stages, Amazon benefitted from the first mover advantage, and had a dominating market share. This attracted huge investment capital in the late 1990s, and Amazon used this capital to broaden its offerings in order to stay on top of emerging competitors. In 1996, Amazon focused on making the shopping experience on Amazon.com better for its customers. It revved up its browsing and search capabilities, and personalized the whole experience by offering customized layouts and recommendations based on what you had been looking at and purchasing. At this point, Amazon aimed to provide additional value to its customers by providing a personalized shopping experience. By 1998, Amazon started expanding into international markets and new products categories, turning into an online superstore and providing convenience and further reduced search costs to its customers. During 1999, Amazon began exploring complementary business models, such as auctions and marketplaces. Under these models, Amazon did not assume control of the inventory, and as such acted as an agent (generating additional revenues under the brokerage revenue model). In late 2000, Amazon saw additional opportunities to†¦ 1994 : Bezos, a N.Y. investment banker with no book publishing or retail experience, identifies book retailing as an industry segment that could exploit the power of emerging Internet technologies. Chooses Seattle as a location to be close to one of the largest book distributors. Writes the business plan and chooses the company name while driving cross country with his wife. 1995 : Between July 1994, when the company was incorporated, and July 1995 when the Amazon.com online bookstore was officially launched, Bezos and a few employees built the software that powered the website. By September 1995, the company was selling over $20,000 per week out of the founder’s garage. 1996 : Amazon.com focused on enhancing its product and service offerings and capabilities with increasingly sophisticated browsing and focused search capabilities, personalized store layout and recommendations, shopping carts, 1 Click shopping (which was later patented), wish lists, and greeting cards. Efforts to redefine and enhance the online shopping experience continued and, in 1999, Amazon.com was one of the first online retailers to enable shopping through wireless devices. 1997 : By the first quarter of 1997, Amazon.com revenues had increased to $16 million (which was equivalent to the company’s yearly revenues in 1996). Amazon.com went public on May 15, 1997. 1998 : Beginning in 1998, Amazon.com began aggressively expanding into new product categories and into international markets. By early 2001, the company was not just an online bookstore, it was an online superstore selling a wide variety of products in over 160 different countries. 1999 : During 1999, Amazon.com began exploring new business models including, auctions (low-end and high- end) and marketplaces (zShops). For these businesses, Amazon.com provided software and services but did not assume control of inventory. As such, it acted as an agent—not a retailer. 2000

Friday, January 10, 2020

The Ethics of Micro Finance

Christopher Martin ‘Micro-finance programmes are aimed at reducing poverty. What ethical challenges are raised by the operation of micro-finance and which ethical theory can best be applied to assess how Grameen Bank addresses these challenges? ’ Introduction: The essay seeks to examine the ethical issues raised by the operation of microfinance. In the first section, an overview will be offered. In the second section the ethical challenges posed by operation of micro-finance will be examined. In the third section, an overview of Grameen Bank will be given.Finally, in the fourth section, the ethical theories of Kant, Bentham and Aristotle will be applied to the ethical issues raised by the operation of Grameen Bank to see which theory best applies. 1. What is micro-finance? Conventional banks like we in the west know are not as widespread in the developing world. Even in places where there ‘mainstream’ banks do have operations, large numbers of people will no t be in a position to utilise their services. Such people have been termed the ‘unbankable poor’. The World Bank estimates that there are 2. billion people (nearly 40% of world’s population) who do not have access to formal financial services. Microfinance has emerged in the last few decades in response to the needs of such people for savings and loans facilities. It is an alternative to them have to use the services of what are colloquially termed ‘loan sharks’, who charge high rates so high that borrowers struggle to pay off the principal sum borrowed. Micro-finance is the provision of savings facilities and small value loans to typically to poor people in the Third World.Such people have a need for financial services, particularly as there is a lack of in rural areas where there is a lack of banking facilities. This makes it harder to makes deposits and so build up any sort of savings. For instance 1 †if you live in a straw hut in a village, finding a safe place to store savings is not easy. † People need sums for 2 â€Å"life-cycle events such as births, marriages & emergency situations. † Stuart Rutherford in ‘The Poor and Their Money' outlines the 3 â€Å" Three common ways of raising large sums i) selling assets they already own (or expect to, e. g. dvance sale of crops) ii) mortgaging or ‘pawning' those assets. iii) finding a way of turning their finding a way of turning their small savings into large lump sums. It is important to note that there is not any ‘one-size fits all' definition of poverty . Muhammed Yunnus asks the rhetorical question 4 â€Å"Who on the list below is poor and who is not: -a jobless person, -an illiterate person, -a homeless person, -a person who does not produce enough food to feed his or her family year round, -a person with a thatched house that lets in rain? -person suffering from malnutrition, -person who does not send his or her children to school? s treet vendor? Micro-finance may increase someone's income but that may just be spent on everyday consumption and not on addressing any of the different facets of poverty on Yunnu's list. For instance, using an increase in income to send a child to school. Savings The very poorest may be too risk averse to take out a loan as they may have an erratic income, for instance due to crop failure. Hence the need for savings. In micro-finance schemes there are two types of savings schemes: I) Locked in: not available for withdrawal until a member a customer left the bank.Used as loan collateral The use of this method was based on the 5 â€Å"Powerful perception tha that the ‘poor cannot save. † ii. Open-access savings which can, it is argued, 6 â€Å"generate much more net savings per client per year (and thus greater capital for the MFI) than compulsory, locked in savings schemes†¦ and provide a useful and well used facility for clients while doing so. † Fundamental to the repayment of micro-finance loans is the group dynamic principle. Peer pressure plays an important part in binding members together.Trust is built up and the commitment to repay is increased via mutually reinforcing behaviour. It can be described as a case of ‘one for all one and all for one' in terms of repaying the loan. -However, there are potential problems as it depends on the co-operation of members. However, 7 â€Å"if it goes badly, then they are all in trouble. † A benefit of individual loans is that 8 â€Å"the lending institution knows who exactly is responsible for the repayment of the loan, and does not get lost in a maze of group members referring to or blaming one another. ’’Section 2 ethical challenges Doubts have been cast on the overall utility of micro-finance programmes in reducing poverty. Some critics argue that 9 â€Å"that micro-finance programmes fail to reach the poorest, generally have a limited effect on income, address the symptom rather than the social cause of poverty†. The 10 â€Å"focus on income poverty† being reduced by 11 â€Å"the provision of credit for income-generation through self-employment. † Neglects to address the deep rooted causes of poverty such as lack of education and poor transport infrastructure.Micro-finance is concentrated on the ‘bankable poor' as they are seen as more able to take advantage of a loan to e. g. buy more equipment and so 12 â€Å" can take more risk than the poorest households without threatening their minimum needs for survival. † It is ironic that a program aimed at reducing poverty excludes the very poorest from participating. However micro-finance programs obviously the motive of reducing poverty. There are 13 ‘’MF premised on the notion that credit is a human right it can improve the lives of the poorest . †But as the very poorest are excluded the application of credit as a ‘human right' is not universal. If something is a ‘human right' is supposed to apply to all humans. In this case it doesn't so it would fail Immanuel Kant's Categorical Imperative†¦.. It could be argued that Yunnus is instead focussing micro-finance on those people who are in the position to benefit most from it. 14 â€Å"Although Yunus frames his vision of MF in the language of human rights, his ideas are in fact concerned with entrepreneurial rather than redistribution. † Thus he is a social businessman rather than a philanthropist.Micro-finance institutions are self-sustaining businesses rather than charities and so 15 â€Å"poverty reduction becomes an externality and not a goal as such†. Thus Yunnus and others could be charged as potentially using borrowers as means rather than ends. Section 3 Grameen Bank Economics professor Muhammad Yunnus was motivated to set up Grameen after being disheartened at the level of poverty he witnessed in rural villages in his native Banglad esh in the early 1970's. A catalysing experience was when he met 16 â€Å" Sufiya Begum, a woman from a village called Jobra.Like many others in her village, she relied on the local moneylender for the cash she needed to buy the bamboo for the stools she crafted. † That loan was only granted on the condition that she sold to him (the money lender) all of her output at a price determined by him. 17 â€Å" Thus, though hard working, she was trapped in poverty. † Furthermore the villagers were cut off from borrowing from 18 â€Å"conventional bankers since they had no credit histories and no collateral to offer, and could not even fill out the necessary paperwork because they were illiterate†. 1.Muhammed Yunnus's was focused on providing the loans to the landless as he saw them as being more entrepreneurial than tradition bound farmers. He was very much of the view that micro-finance could help the poor to help themselves through becoming self reliant. Grameen mean s village in Bengali. Muhummad Yunnus wanted the bank to be the antithesis of a faceless bureaucratic bank headquarted in a large city (even though it is now). He aimed at recruiting banking staff who would build up an understanding of the everyday lives of villagers and the challenges they faced.This would make it easier to identify which people would benefit most. Crucially this helped to engender the building up of levels of trust between the borrowers in village who took out the collateral free and contract free loans. Vitally the development of the level of trust necessary to ensure repayment collateral free loans without any contract was the process of group dynamic in binding borrowers together with mutually reinforcing behaviour. What helped make the repayment process be manageable for borrowers was that loans were paid in small weekly instalments rather than one lump sum to worry about at the end of the loan period. )Application of ethical theory: Grameen Bank's focus on bo rrowers becoming self reliant relates to them developing virtues of self reliance and not being burdensome to others. Yunnus argued 19 †On the recipient side, charity can have devastating effects. It robs the recipient of dignity, and it removes the incentive of having to generate income. It makes the recipient passive and satisfied with thinking ‘all I have to do is sit her with my hand out and I will earn a living† Instead, borrowers will developing a sense of ownership by coming 20 â€Å"With their own ideas† for business generation.In this respect Yunnus is treating borrowers as ends and not means as he leaving it up to them how they behave. The programme develops members sense of self-discipline of saving regularly as they had to 21 â€Å"save for several months before they were eligible for to borrow. The requirement to save first also results in an investment in the institution that will lend to them – thus the loans they receive are financed not just by an outside faceless agency, but also by their own savings and those of their friends and neighbours. The borrowers are much more likely to be committed and conscientious about repaying. ’. Yunnus challenges the assumptions on human nature made by conventional banking paradigms by issuing collateral free loans without any contracts. 22 â€Å"Grameen assumes that every borrower is basically honest. We may be accused of being naive, but it saves us having to fill in all those endless documents And in 99 per cent of the cases our trust turns out to be vindicated. Bad loans of 0. 5 per cent is the cost of doing business, and it also represents a constant reminder of what we need to improve in order to succeed. † Micro-finance proponents can't be completely 3 â€Å" ethical claiming to reduce poverty while pursuing other objectives. This is particularly so because other people’s money is involved†. The intentions of institutions should be transparen t, e. g. through a mission statement and should not be cloaked in language that hides agendas of e. g. making a profit for shareholders, by only stressing social objectives. 24 â€Å"Furthermore the imbalance of power between the lender and the borrower. † surely makes it harder for borrowers to pursue their own interests as they have to be reconciled with the banks financial interest.Within the framework of the ethics of Immanuel Kant, Professor Yunnus succeeds ethically as is acting from the altruistic motive of reducing poverty. Kant agreeed that 25 â€Å"to act from a good will is to act from duty. † Aristotle takes a stricter approach by arguing that acts are ethical if agents go beyond just doing so from a sense of duty. For instance, someone only went to visit an elderly relative out of a sense of duty, and not from any greater concern for the relatives welfare.Muhammad Yunnus's focus on helping the poor maintain their sense of dignity by becoming more self reli ant is consistent with Kant's approach as Kant argues 26 â€Å"â€Å"Our free will is what gives us our dignity and unconditioned worth† This of course relates to Kant maintaining that people should be considered as ends in themselves rather than means to someone else's end. Kant's stress on the universality of ethical principles is relevant to the potential problem of people stopping viewing promises as binding.The group dynamic principle of micro-finance surely make the promises of members more binding as otherwise it would seem that if one person got away with not paying, then no one would and then the bank would not lend to them.. Additionally, as the borrowers and the bank are both benefitting so 27 †No one (is) used merely as a means in an voluntary economic exchange where both parties benefit. † Jeremy Bentham and John Stuart Mill's Utilitatarianism holds that the ethical utility of actions can be measured by the consequences. This approach is onsistent wi th the cost-benefit analysis adopted by contemporary businessses where the utility being measured is profit. In the case of Grameen Bank the utility can be measure by a) the rate of loan repayment According to Yunnus the default rate was only 28 â€Å"0. 5 per cent†. However, on the other hand many members of Grameen were unhappy with their savings being ‘lockked-in' and 29 â€Å" were leaving the organisation in order to realise their (often substantial) compulsory savings. † Such members went on strike in 1995 to protest at being denied accesss to their savings. 30 â€Å"The financial consequences of the strike were profound.According to an unpublished Grameen Bank internal report (1996), in Tangail District the cumulative un-repaid amount had climbed to over $2 million. † More generally, in terms of consequences for members there have been benefits. The scheme has helped the majority to build up savings that could be used as capital. Additionally it the scheme has helped reduce income poverty 31 â€Å"Grameen bank members had incomes about 28 % higher than the target group of non-participants. † Act utilitarianism seems like the most appropriate branch of Utilitarianism to apply to Grameen bank and Muhammad Yunnus.An act is right' if it maximises utility. A sort of moral s is used to calculate the long term benefits and harm for each actor and then compute the result. But there is the problem of time-framing how long a period eto consider. One is reminded of Keynes quote ‘in the long term we are all dead'. Act utilitarian’s consider themselves equally with others so are not egoist in just assessing whether an act maximises their own individual utility or well being. Yunnus does seem sincere in doing that and is aiming to benefit the members as opposed to just enriching himself.However on the other hand, Utilitarianism could be consistent with the Grameen member group dynamic process discussed earlier. Members r ealise that there will be bad consequences for them and their peers if they don't follow the ‘rule' of repaying' and so are compelled to follow the rule. Robert Solomon, writing in ‘A companion to business ethics' argues that 32 â€Å" â€Å"In business ethics it is generally agreed that three elements, the principles of an action, the action itself, and the action's consequences must be taken into account. However there is another option†: virtue ethics.Grameen's ethos of borrowers using using the loans to become self employed is connected to them developing the character traits consistent with the virtue of self reliance. Aristotle deemed behaviour a virtuous if is it was consistent with a 33 †mean between the extremes† of e. g. being dependent on someone else's act of charity and being selfish. As the 34â€Å"Various virtues reinforce one another†, the principle can be applied to the Grameen member group dynamic of mutually reinforcing behav iour encouraging the repayment of the loan.In this case it is the non relative virtue of trustworthiness that is being reinforced. It could also be argued that different members are motivated by Aristotle's 33 â€Å"Idea of practice- shared cooperative activity with mutually understood goals and ways of doing things. Conclusion Muhammad Yunnus set up Grameen bank with a good motive out of concern for the poor. Yes, this pure motive has been diluted by the pragmatic need for the bank to be financially self sustaining. For instance the previous use of locked in loans would be termed coercive by Kant, so in this aspect the borrowers are being treated as means.How the bank lets members come up with their own ideas for business generation is consistent with Kant’s belief on people’s free will that enables them to be rational and moral. Furthermore as both the bank and the borrowers are benefitting from this economic exchange, then the borrowers are not being treated as mea ns and so this would pass Kant’s test of whether it is ethical. It is difficult to measure the individual benefits and downsides experienced by the individual members, thus making it a less effective ethical yardstick. However the high repayment rate does score well on the Utilitarian scale.But ultimately, Muhammad Yunnus is motivate by concern at the suffering of the rural poor. Crucially he wants to help them help themselves. One is reminded of Bob Geldof’s fishing rod analogy –better to give a man a fishing rod, than a fish. Yunnus and Grameen bank are thus actively promoting the virtue of self reliance. Additionally they are promoting the virtues of co-operation and trust via the group dynamic and by the fact the loans are collateral and contract free. Critics of Yunnus may have attacked him because he isn’t the perfect philanthropist. Rather, he is a socially responsible businessman.Bibliography Wright, Graham, ‘Micro-finance systems' 2000, The University Press, Zed Books, London. Roy, Ananya, ‘Poverty Capital' 2010, Routledge, Oxford. Activities that are unlikely to create indebtedness† Rutherford, Stuart, †The Poor and Their Money', 2000, Oxford University Press, New Delhi Yunnus, Muhammad (with Alan Jolis), ‘Banker to the Poor', 1999, Aurum Press, London Yunus, M, Moingen, B and Lehmann-Ortega, L, ‘Micro Finance- Building social business models: Lessons from the Grameen experiences', article in ‘LONG RANGE PLANNING   Ã‚  Volume: 43   Ã‚  Issue: 2-3   Ã‚  Special Issue: Sp.Iss. SI   Ã‚  Pages: 308-325   Ã‚  Published: APR-JUN 2010 Rutherford, S, ‘The Poor and Their Money' , 2000, Oxford University Press, New Delhi. Frederick, R, ‘Companion to business ethics', 2002, Blackwell Publishing, Oxford Vanroose, A, ‘Is microfinance an ethical way to provide financial services to the poor? Microfinance: Are its promises ethically justified? CEB Working Paper N ° 0 7/014 June 2007 References 1. Wright, G, Microfinance Systems, page 2 2â€Å" â€Å" page 1 3â€Å" â€Å" page 5 3. Yunnus, Banker to the poor, page 10 4.Wright, G, page 71 6. Wright, G, page 69 7. Wright, G, page 139 8 Wright, G, page 139 9. Wright, G, page 6 10. Wright, G, page 8 11. Wright, G, page 8 12. Wright, G, page 11 13. Roy, A, ‘Poverty Capital, page 13 14. Roy, A, page 23 15. Vanroose, A, CEB Working paper, page 11 16. Yunus, M, Moingen, B and Lehmann-Ortega, L, ‘Micro Finance- Building social business models: Lessons from the Grameen experiences', Page 314 17. Ditto 18. Ditto 19. Yunnus, Muhammad (with Alan Jolis), ‘Banker to the Poor', page 22 20. Yunnus, Banker to the poor, page 114 21. Wright, G, Microfinance systems, page 137 2. Yunnus, ‘Banker to the poor’, page 111 23 Vanroose, A, ‘Is microfinance an ethical way to provide financial services to the poor? , page 4 24. Ditto 25. Frederick, R, ‘Companion to Business Ethi cs, Chapter 1 by Solomon, R, page 3 26. â€Å" â€Å" page 4 27. Frederik, R, page 7 28. Yunnus, M, ‘Banker to the poor’ page 111 29. Wright, G, page 78 30. Wright, G page 78 31. Yunnus, & Lehman-Ortega, page 12 32. Frederick, R, page 30 33. Frederick, R, page 30 34. Frederick,R page 32